A mixed research-based model for pre-service science teachers' digital literacy: Responses to "which beliefs" and "how and why they interact" questions
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This study constructs a science teaching belief system to examine pre-service science teachers' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs) and conceptions of teaching and learning (COTL). The aim of the study was to investigate the structural relations among pre-service science teachers' SEBs, COTL and digital literacy skills and to determine the reasons for these relations. First, quantitative research was conducted to examine the structural relations among the variables, using structural equation modeling analysis on the data gathered from 979 pre-service science teachers. Next, qualitative research investigated the reasons for these relations. Thus, the study has a sequential explanatory research design. The findings of the study showed that pre-service science teachers' SEBs affected their constructivist conceptions positively. On the other hand, their SEBs were related to their traditional conceptions negatively. In addition, pre-service teachers' COTL contribute more positively to their digital literacy skills if they hold constructivist conceptions. The previous experiences of pre-service science teachers were also found to affect their beliefs and digital literacy skills. The findings contribute to the educational literature by focusing on the relationships among pre-service science teachers' SEBs, COLT and digital literacy, which is one of the most important 21st century skills, in the context of pre-service science teachers' belief systems.