Application of full factorial design for the preconcentration of chromium by solid phase extraction with Amberlyst 36 resin
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The preconcentration of chromium(III) by solid phase extraction and its determination from aqueous solutions by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is investigated by applying an experimental design. The optimization of the preconcentration variables such as pH of the sample solution, flow rate of the sample solution and concentration of elution solution was carried out using 2(3) full factorial design. The most important parameter affecting the preconcentration of chromium is the concentration of eluent. In the established experimental conditions, chromium can be determined with a relative standard deviation of 2.0% (N = 7) for a chromium concentration of 100 mu g L-1. The detection limit for chromium was 1 mu g L-1 (N= 20). The adsorption capacity of Amberlyst 36 is found to be 90.9 mg g(-1) for chromium. Effect of other ions on the procedure was also evaluated. The method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (tea leaves GBW 07605 and fish tissue IAEA-407). The method was applied to the determination of chromium in waste water, dam water, carrot, parsley and lettuce.