Morphology, myxocarpy, mineral content and in vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of mericarps of the vulnerable Turkish endemic Salvia pilifera
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Salvia L., the largest genus of the family Lamiaceae, is composed of many well-known plants of medicinal value. This study provides the first data on micromorphology, myxocarpy, mineral content and in vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of mericarps of Salvia pilifera, considered to be a vulnerable endemic species from Turkey. The macro- and micromorphological mericarp traits were documented and illustrated via stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Mineral content of mericarps was analyzed using ICP-MS. Ethanol extract of mericarps was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata using broth microdilution method. Antimycobacterial activity was performed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using resazurin microtiter plate method. Ampicillin, Ethambutol, Isoniazid, and Fluconazole were chosen as reference drugs. Antiproliferative effect of the extract was tested against A549 human lung cancer cell lines using MU test. The size of the mericarps was 4.38 +/- 0.17 mm in length and 3.28 +/- 0.13 mm in width. The general shape was elliptic to widely elliptic. The abscission scar was nearly rounded. The ornamentation pattern of the surface was colliculate with polygonal exocarp cells. Myxocarpy was observed on the surface of the mericarps when they become hydrated. Transparent mucilaginous cells showed a moderate reaction with extensions more than 0.1 mm long. Potassium and calcium were determined as major minerals (80.662 +/- 0.234 and 41.892 +/- 0.399 mu g/g, respectively). The extract showed greater antibacterial activity against A. baumannii compared to Ampicillin (62.5 and 125 mu g/mL MIC values, respectively). Cell viability level of the extract (100 mu g/mL) was found to be statistically lower than control group against A549 human lung cancer cell lines (P<0.05).