Öğretmen adaylarının bilimsel araştırmaları inceleme yeterlikleri
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Öğretmen yetiştirmede, öğretmen yeterliklerinin önemli bir boyutunun bilimsel araştırma yeterlikleri olması gerektiği hemen herkesçe kabul edilen bir gerçektir. Bu araştırma ile Türkçe öğretmeni adaylarının bilimsel araştırmaları inceleme yeterlik düzeylerinin tespiti amaçlamıştır. Araştırma Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Türkçe öğretmeni adayı 48 öğrenci ile yürütülmüştür. Araştırma betimsel bir araştırma olup, çalışma grubu amaçlı örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenmiştir. Araştırma verileri katılımcıların yurtiçi hakemli dergilerde yayınlanmış bilimsel bir makalenin incelemelerine dayalı olarak elde edilmiştir. Katılımcıların ayrıntılı incelemesine sunulan araştırma makaleleri, geliştirilen bir ölçek doğrultusunda araştırmacılarca incelenerek araştırma verileri elde edilmiştir. Araştırma bulgularına göre, Türkçe öğretmeni adaylarının bilimsel araştırma makalelerinin taşıması gereken özellikleri ne düzeyde tespit edebildiklerine ilişkin olarak; bilimsel bir makalenin problem durumu, yöntem, bulgular ve sonuç/önerilere ilişkin boyutlarındaki yeterlikleri, araştırmanın yazım kurallarına uygunluğu gibi biçimselliği ile ilgili boyutlarındaki yeterliklerine oranla daha düşük oranda olduğu görülmüştür.Research, basically, in a search, learning, making the unknown known, to keep the darkness of light, a brief process of enlightenment. Shortly it is a clarification process. Research is vital for person and society (Karasar, 2007a). Research culture can be seen as one of the basic features of modern societies includes cognitive, effective and psycho-motor abilities or qualities. And it is accepted that people will achieve this culture by means of education. Research requires skill and experience which requires research independently and criticizing other‘s research (Balcı, 2009: quoted from Simon and Bursteinn in 1985). With this denotation it composes a dimension in professional development of students in faculties of education in terms of distinguishing scientific researches, investigating them according to research methods, criticizing and making research independently. In this research, following questions were inquired: • What were the students‘ abilities in examining the scientific research? • What were the concepts under each category? The research benefited from the general screening models, single scan model. General scans are, in a universe, consisting of so many elements, the models of scanning on the whole universe or else one group or a sample of it which is used for getting a general idea. In this approach, the changes such as matter, individual, group, subject etc. are tried to be identified (Karasar, 2007a). According to Kaptan (1998), the research which tries to identify some events, objects, entities, associations, groups and various fields are descriptive studies. Descriptive studies aim at explaining the interaction between the situations, by taking care of existing events and the previous events and their relations, too. So, in the study, examining the results achieved with performance evaluation, which aims to show students‘ examining skills, represents a real environment. This study was limited with Scientific Research Strategy Lesson. The study group, 2009-2010 academic year, Ahi Ervan University, Faculty of Education, Teacher Training in Turkish 2 grade students, 48 students are determined by random sampling. In order to clarify abilities of candidate teachers about examining scientific researches, their study papers were examined during the process and tried to be determined with the Scale of Decreeing Scientific Research Ability (BAYDö). With this scale, it was aimed to grade and evaluate performance products authentically. Thanks to this, both it was reduced the researchers‘ faults in grading products about the situation and it became a chance to see details of difference between the individuals. In the developing process of BAYDö; first of all, the draft form related with ‘scope validity‘ was applied to experts‘ view. The draft composed by researcher, representing three people expert group. Their views were taken about scope validity of items and some dimensions such as; problems, sub-problems, dependent and independent changes, relation of matters in subject, matters‘ root, expressing, ordering etc. (Büyüköztürk at all, 2008; Wiersma and Jurs, 2005). In this context, experts were asked to evaluate the selections as ‘valid‘, ‘invalid‘, and ‘need to develop‘ in each dimension. Also their written views were asked how the whole form and its sub-dimensions ccould be. And by the help of experts‘ feedbacks, by determining Kendall‘s Tau Correlation Coefficient, experts‘ consistence and reliability of matters about the draft form determined. The result of each matters‘ coefficient;M1 (r=.53), M2 (r=.72), M3 (r=.48), M4 (r=.58), M5 (r=.44), M6 (r=.66), M7 (r=.41), M8 (r=.65) ve M9 (r=.46) were found. The results showed that BAYDö had the quality of being used in research. As the last aspect, BAYDö was configured into 12 categories: Abstract, introduction, problem, writing a research model, explaining the universe and sample, data and explaining how to gather it, explaining how to evaluate data, diagnosis, discussion, result, bibliography, orthography/presentation. In data analysis research, activity reports and written materials, used for product evaluation, were investigated conceptually. Data, derived from written texts, were transferred to computers as existing (1) and non-existing (0) according to 12 dimensions in BAYDö. In analyzing these data; first of all, SPSS 15.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) packet programmed, frequency and percent values were used to determine the students‘ ability of examining the scientific researches. Also, in students‘ examining the scientific research and determining the relation gender changes, independent t test technique were used. As a second, it was tried to make a relation between concepts-themes-categories according to students‘ use of scientific research steps in each dimension. In this stage, relation analysis, a content analysis was used. In case studies, generally defining a situation, searching theme, gathering data about themes and comparing themes are carried on by researcher (Bloor and Wood, 2006). In the research, texts composing data base were analyzed with Osgood (1959)‘s method which is a content-analysis method and examining the items severally or in single parts. Relation analysis, in a whole(text, expression, sample etc.) aims not to analyze how many times a thing is seen, but aims to analyze what a thing is seen another thing together, various message elements are together in which relations (quoted from Bilgin, 2006). Case studies especially for experimental and scanning studies, consider so complicated context. In spite of having a valid research strategy with the truths but in case studies, quantity techniques, including other research method, can be used (Bloor and Wood, 2006). In this study, the frequencies of appearing codes, achieved by researchers were computed together with relational matrix. In order to support researchers‘ evaluation and reflect students‘ point of view, sample quotations were derived from documentary texts. According to research diagnosis, students‘; • It was perceived that students made research about title/author (n= 44; 91, 65%) in a high degree. In their texts, it was fore grounded that numbers of words, writing characters and APA criteria were suitable, • It was seen that make research about abstract (n= 45; 93, 7%) in a high degree. In their texts, it was fore grounded numbers of words, summarizing the article and keywords. • Almost half of them made research about introduction category (n= 30; 62, 5%). In their texts, it was fore grounded that they make relation with scanning bibliography, aim, problem and summarizing paragraph‘s conception could be seen. • They could make research about diagnosis was category (n= 35; 72, 9%). In their texts it was fore grounded that they could explain research data, comment diagnosis, statistical operations and determining solution and examining tablequotation texts concepts. • They could make research about result/discussion category (n= 35; 72, 9%). In their texts it was fore grounded that there were concepts of determining result of research. • They could make research about bibliography category (n= 39; 81, 2%). In their texts it was fore grounded the concepts of the rules of showing bibliography and ordering it. • They could make research about writing/presentation (n= 45; 93, 7%). In their texts it was fore grounded they could explain paper formation and concepts of quotation. In the terms of the relations of students‘ abilities about examining in categories; the highest degree of relations could be seen in title/author-abstract (r= 86) and title/author-writing /presentation (r= 86) and abstract-writing/presentation (r= 88) categories and the lowest degree of relations could be seen introduction-method (r= 39), introduction-diagnosis (r= 46), method-diagnosis (r= 46) and method-result/discussion (r= 47) categories.