SOSYAL BİLGİLER ÖĞRETMENLERİNİN ÖĞRETİM ARAÇ-GEREÇ VE MATERYALLERİNİ KULLANMA DÜZEYLERİ
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Öğretimde araç-gereçlerin kullanılması, öğretmenlerin dersleri etkili bir şekilde yürütebilmesini sağladığı gibi öğretmenlerin işini de kolaylaştırmaktadır. İyi bir eğitici konuyu işlerken farklı materyaller ve kaynaklar kullanarak öğrencilerin geneline hitap edebilmelidir. Bu araştırmada ilköğretim Sosyal Bilgiler öğretmenlerinin araç-gereç ve materyal kullanımına yönelik durumları belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırma tarama modelinde olup çalışma grubunu 2009-2010 eğitim-öğretim yılında Kırşehir ilinde görev yapan 50 sosyal bilgiler öğretmeni oluşturmaktadır. Yapılan çalışmada; öğretmenlerin yarıdan fazlası (%62) derste kullanmak üzere power point, grafikler, haritalar, çalışma kâğıtları, fotoğraf, kroki, şemalar gibi basit görsel materyaller hazırladıklarını ifade etmişlerdir. Bu sonuç okullarda bulunması en kolay olan haritaların ve yer kürenin Sosyal Bilgiler dersinde vazgeçilmez materyal olarak kullanıldığını göstermektedir. Katılımcıların bir kısmı tarafından konu ile ilgili sunum, film, resim vb. içeren CD'ler ve projeksiyonun derslerde kullanıldığı ancak bunu kullanan öğretmen sayısının çok az olduğu görülmüştürIt is accepted that the most effective weapon today is knowledge and the ability to use it. In this respect, how to teach and use knowledge effectively is very important. Training individuals who know the ways to reach and use knowledge will be actualized merely with the effective use of teaching materials and equipment (OAGM) in the lessons. The research conducted to determine the usage level of OAGM by the Social Studies teachers and the problems they encounter while using them relying on the views of the teachers aimed at seeking answers to the flowing questions: What is the OAGM proficiency level of Social Studies teachers to be used in Social Studies course in the schools where they are employed? Are there any Social Studies classes? What ways do Social Studies teachers use to prepare and provide materials? How often do Social Studies teachers use OAGM? Does the usage of OAGM by the Social Studies teachers differ according to the gender, length of service, and graduation? At what level are the Social Studies teachers’ reasons for not being able to use OAGM? Survey model was used in this research. The participants are comprised of Social Studies teachers employed in state schools in Kırsehir. The total number of Social Studies teachers employed in the primary schools in Kırşehir is 52. First, literature was reviewed during the preparation of the data collection tool. In view of the purpose of the study, a scale consisting of 4 parts and 72 items were prepared relying on the information obtained from the literature review and the views of the experts. After the piloting of the scale developed by the researcher was carried out with 100 classroom teachers teaching the 4th and 5th grades due to a few number of social studies teachers, its reliability and validity was obtained (Cronbach ? = 0,90). In the first part, the personal qualities of the teachers and their conditions to provide OAGM were tried to be determined. The existence of OAGM in the schools in the second part, the teachers’ usage levels of OAGM in the third part and in the fourth part the reasons for the teachers not being able to use OAGM were tried to be determined. Frequency and percentages were used with the items related to the personal qualities of the teachers who participated in the study and their conditions to provide OAGM, the existence of OAGM in the schools and the reasons of the teachers for not being able to benefit from OAGM. In addition to the frequency and percentages, arithmetic mean was included in the teachers’ usage frequency of OAGM and the interpretations were made over arithmetic mean. The t-test was performed to determine the differences in respect to gender variable for the item analysis of the scale. “One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)” was performed to determine the differences in respect to the variables of university graduation and length of service. In the conditions where the differences were determined, LSD tests were performed to reveal between which groups the differences were realized. The significance levels of the tests implemented were set at 0,05. Among the teachers who participated in the study, nearly half of the teachers (%24) who received in-service training about the usage of OAGM (%52) stated that the education given was not satisfactory. The reasons is that the groups receiving seminars in in-service training sessions are many in number, time is insufficient, and no opportunity is provided for practice and so on. Having unsuitable education environment to use tools-equipment, in other words not having different classes for each lesson, restrict the use of materials (Demirel & Altun, 2009: 38). It was determined that there were not social studies classes in many schools (%86) within the context of the study. The teachers will have an opportunity to keep the materials they have prepared in the same class environments in the schools where there are social studies classes. In this case, it can be stated that because OAGM will be kept at teachers’ fingertips, they will use them more frequently. The most commonly used OAGM by the teachers are boards, globes, and maps, which are present in every class. Moreover, the teachers who participated in the study stated that they partially (%52) owned the OAGM required for “social studies course”. When the reasons for not being able to use OAGM are examined, a lot of OAGM (such as e-board, dial plate, opaque projector (episcope)) cannot be used due to lack of them in the schools. This condition reveals that the responses given to the scale support each other. The teachers who participated in the study prepare OAGM either on their own or with their students or they provide them via the school administration. Nearly half of the teachers (%62) stated that they prepared simple visual materials such as power point, graphics, maps, work sheets, photographs, charts, and diagrams to use in the lesson. While boards and maps, printed materials (such as encyclopedias and journals), timeline, computer, projector and boards (bulletin boards), overhead projector, TVVCD are present in the schools within the context of the study, dial plates, posters, graphics and tables, big pictures, photos, cartoons slide projectors and e-boards are partially present. However, opaque projector (episcope) is lacking. Among OAGM, social studies teachers use first boards, then maps and finally the printed materials (encyclopedias and journals). They use timeline, computer, projector, boards (bulletin boards), newspaper, TV-VCD, graphics and tables a few times in a month. It can be stated that the use of computer technology more effectively in Social Studies course will have a positive impact on the quality of education. Especially it may provide a great convenience to bring pictures, maps and audio materials to the classroom. Therefore, the computer technology is required to be benefited to the utmost in social studies course. A significant difference was not found between gender and graduation and the usage of OAGM. In view of variable of length of service, it was observed that a significant difference was calculated to be p<.05 over dial plate, big picture, and diorama in terms of the usage of OAGM. Boards and maps are the major OAGM which the social studies teachers have not encountered any problems. This result overlaps with the most frequently used OAGM. When the reasons for not using the other OAGM are examined, newspapers due to problems such as number of students and physical conditions and e-boards, opaque projectors, slide projectors, and dial plates due to the problem that we do not have in our school come up.