Chemotaxonomy and flavonoid profiling of Torilis species by HPLC/ESI/MS2
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The flavonoid profiles of Turkish Torilis Gaertn. (Apiaceae) species were studied by TLC. HPLC-UV and HPLC/ESI/MS2 (negative mode). O-glycosides of luteolin, apigenin and chrysoeriol were identified from crude extracts with the help of mass spectra in different MS/MS modes, such as full scan, precursor ion scan and product ion scan. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside were common to all species. Flavonoid profiles usually differ from one species to another and can be put to use for a genus such as Torilis which has been little studied. By the help of different flavonoid profiles, it is concluded that, the plants, which are recognised as less rayed subspecies of Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link. in various floras including Turkish one, must be classified in species category as Torilis chrysocarpa and Torilis purpurea. Flavonoid profiles seem to be in relation with evolutionary biogeography of the species. Because the most isolated species of the genus, endemic Torilis triradiata, has the most different flavonoid pattern. Moreover, geographically isolated species, T triradiata and Torilis leptocarpa, do not share any flavonoid except for the two which are common to all species. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.