TANZİMAT DÖNEMİNDE EDEBÎ TENKİT
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Tenkit, Batıda çok önceden beri varlığını sürdüren bir inceleme yöntemidir. Bu çalışma ile Tanzimat edebiyatının tenkit anlayışı, dönem sanatçılarından ve bu evredeki eleştirel eserlerden hareketle ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. İlk etapta Türk ve Batı edebiyatındaki tenkit kavramları ve bu kavramların ifade ettiği anlamlar izah edilmiştir. Yirminci yüzyıla kadar Batı edebiyatında özellikle Eski Yunan ve Roma devirlerini kapsayan klasik tenkit, Aristo ve Eflatun'un sanat hakkındaki düşüncelerini ve yine Aristo'nun günümüz tenkit anlayışına da temel oluşturan ilk metotlu tenkit anlayışını içerir. Ortaçağdan başlayarak 17 ve 18. yüzyıla gelindiğinde ise Neoklasik tenkidin etkisi görülür ancak 19. yüzyıla gelindiğinde Neoklasizm'e tepki olan ve Herder ile Goethe'nin geliştirdiği Romantik tenkit anlayışı benimsenmiş olur. Batı edebiyatında olduğu gibi Divan edebiyatında da tenkit mevcuttur. Klasik edebiyatta yapılan tenkidin, nazari tenkit anlayışından daha çok pratik tenkit biçiminde olduğu görülür. Bunun en önemli sebepleri olarak Arap ve Fars edebiyatlarının temel alınarak oluşturulan Divan edebiyatının değiştirilemez olarak düşünülen birtakım kurallarının varlığı, bu dönem sanatçılarının ve eserlerininkutsiliğine inanılmasıdır. Bir kültürün edebiyatına yön veren, onu geliştiren en önemli etkenlerden biri yapıcı ve yenilikçi bir tenkit anlayışıdır. Daha çok öznel düşünceleri temel alan Tanzimat edebiyatının birinci dönem sanatçıları, edebiyat anlayışlarında olduğu gibi tenkitte de sosyal faydacılığı esas almışlardır. Tanzimat'ın ikinci dönem sanatçıları ise eleştirel anlayışlarını, birinci dönem sanatçılarına göre daha nesnel ve Batılı bir düzlemde gerçekleştirmiş, belirli kriterlere dayandırmışlardır. Bu bağlamda Recaizade Mahmut Ekrem, Takdir-i Elhân ve Talim-i Edebiyat adlı eserleriyle önemli bir yere sahip olmuştur. Onun teorik görüşleri, sanat hakkında olduğu gibi tenkit algısı üzerinde de son derece büyük öneme sahiptir. Nazari görüşlere sahip önemli olan Ekrem Bey, Fransız eleştirisini önemser ve görüşlerini bu çizgide temellendirir. Edebiyatımıza ilk tenkitli biyografiyi kazandıran Beşir Fuat'ın da tenkide, Ekrem gibi nesnel yaklaştığı görülür. Beşir Fuat ile edebî düzlemde yazışmaları olan ve bunları İntikad'da bir araya getiren Muallim Naci, tenkit anlayışında gelenekçi bir tutum sergilemiştir. Yanlış ve basit kelime kullanımı üzerinde durarak yeni bir tarz olan "kelime eleştirisi" anlayışını geliştirir. Bu nedenle Naci'nin, edebî tenkit konusunda genellikle dil hususiyetleri ve biçimsel hususiyetler üzerinde durduğu görülür. Yeni edebiyatta ilk sayılabilecek tenkit örneğini veren ve eskiye karşı yeniyi savunan Şinâsi, tenkitlerini genellikle eserleri ile ortaya koyar. Edebiyatta sosyal faydacılığı kendine vazife edinen Namık Kemal, ilk büyük tenkitçimizdir. Yeni ve sade bir dilin gerekliliğine inanan bu eleştirmen, "Lisân-ı Osmaninin Edebiyatı Hakkında Bazı Mülahazatı Şâmildir" isimli makalesinde dil hassasiyetini, "Mukaddeme-i Celâl"de dilin manasının doğru ve sağlam anlaşılması gerektiğini belirtir. Eski ve Yeni edebiyatçılar arasındaki görüş ayrılıklarını ilginç benzetmelerle dile getiren Namık Kemal, sert eleştirileriyle dikkat çeker. Ziya Paşa ise övünülecek şiirin yeniliklerle dolu olması gerektiğine inanır, ancak edebiyat anlayışı içinde eski-yeni ikilemi yaşar. Bu durumu "Şiir ve İnşa"makalesi ile Harabat adlı antolojisinde kaleme aldığı yazılarla görmek mümkündür. Tanzimat'ın ikinci nesli ise tenkidi daha çok eser ve edebiyat düzlemine çeker, böylece nesnel olana yaklaşılırCriticism, is an analysis method which has existed since long before the West. Reforms understanding of literary criticism was examined by this study. Reforms of the criticism put forward a critical period of the artist and the works in this phase of movement. Firstly, criticism of the Turkish and Western literary concepts and meanings that express these concepts are explained. twentieth century, especially in the Western literary criticism including the classic Greek and Roman periods, Aristotle and Plato's first method of forming his thoughts on art and contemporary criticism still fundamental in the understanding of Aristotle's conception contains the criticism. When starting from the Middle Ages to the 17th and 18th century neoclassical effect is seen only criticism would react to the 19th century neo-classicism. Divan literature has criticism as the Western literature. The criticism made in classical literature, criticism of the theoretical approach appears to be more practical form of criticism. This is one of the most important causes of the Arab and Persian literature can not be modified on the basis of Divan literature created. Giving directions to a culture of literature, one of the most important factors when it developed a criticism constructive and innovative approach. Subjective thoughts based artist first period of the Tanzimat literature, literary criticism as they are based on the concept of social utilitarianism. Reforms are critical understanding of the artist's second period, the first period was carried out according to objective and western artists plane, they have based on certain criteria. Recaizade Mahmut Ekrem, has had an important place in the works called Takdir-i Elhân ve Talim-i Edebiyat. His theoretical views, and also has extremely great importance on perception as it is about art criticism. Ekrem Bey with theoretical views. It takes care of the French criticism and justify their views in this line. Beşir Fuat won the first critical biography of Turkish literature. His criticisms are objective understanding as Ekrem Bey. Muallim Naci has made literature Fuad correspondence with Beşir Fuat. Muallim Naci brought them together in the İntikad. Muallim Naci criticism was a traditionalist approach. Muallim Naci, stood on a new way to use the wrong word and the “words criticism" has developed the concept. Therefore Naci is seen that generally focus on formal language characteristics and traits in literary criticism. Şinasi gave the first example of the new literary criticism. He argued against the new against the old old. It reveals the criticism Şinasi usually works with. Namik Kemal, has adopted the measure in the literature of social utilitarianism. Namik Kemal believes that new and simple language is required. He “Lisân-ı Osmaninin Edebiyatı Hakkında Bazı Mülahazatı Şâmildir" to advocate the importance of language in his article. He "Mukaddeme-i Celâl" also indicates that the language must be understood correctly and securely. Namik Kemal, the disagreements between the old and new writers expresses interesting analogy. And He strongly criticized the old fans. Ziya Paşa proud to believe that innovation should be filled with poetry. Ziya Paşa had old-new dilemmas in his understanding literature. In this case the "Poetry and Construction" in the anthology called Harabati article can be seen in the writings penned. The second generation Tanzimat takes more work and literary criticism plane, thus approaching the objective Reforms understanding of literary criticism was examined by this study. Reforms of the criticism put forward a critical period of the artist and the works in this phase of movement. Firstly, criticism of the Turkish and Western literary concepts and meanings that express these concepts are explained. twentieth century, especially in the Western literary criticism including the classic Greek and Roman periods, Aristotle and Plato's first method of forming his thoughts on art and contemporary criticism still fundamental in the understanding of Aristotle's conception contains the criticism. When starting from the Middle Ages to the 17th and 18th century neoclassical effect is seen only criticism would react to the 19th century neo-classicism. Criticism has been a longstanding scientific field in Europe. Thanks to criticism, Western literature has frequently refreshed itself and quite previously reached the point which we still try to reach today. However, Turkish literature has not gone through the desired internal change and renewal due to the lack or hindsight of criticism in real terms. It has got stuck for many years in its narrow cliche patterns far from appealing to large masses of people and by not keeping up with the times. This is the case especially for the Divan literature. The most important reason why the Ottoman Empire was not able to carry the Divan literature into future was the fact that the Ottoman Empire absented itself from constructive, progressive political and literary criticism while not avoiding imitation. With the political and literary mindset they took from the West, the Tanzimat (reforms) generation tried to exist in the field of criticism but the critics in this period did not go beyond subjectivity. Subjective thoughts based artist first period of the Tanzimat literature, literary criticism as they are based on the concept of social utilitarianism. Reforms are critical understanding of the artist's second period, the first period was carried out according to objective and western artists plane, they have based on certain criteria. Recaizade Mahmut Ekrem, has had an important place in the works called Takdir-i Elhân ve Talim-i Edebiyat. His theoretical views, and also has extremely great importance on perception as it is about art criticism. Ekrem Bey with theoretical views. It takes care of the French criticism and justify their views in this line. Şinâsi, who had a scientific and rationalist character, preferred to criticise the old with his distinctive language and works while dealing with the new. He devoted plenty of time to language issue and so died he while studying on a dictinary. Namık Kemal was quite far from objectivity with his subjective critics. Kaya Bilgegil (1972: 276) defines Namık Kemal’s approach as “dogmatic criticism”. What led Namık Kemal to such a powerful reaction to the old was the fact that he believed he would be beneficial to the society by building the New Literature instead of the old one, which can be called social utilitarianism. Ziya Paşa’s dualism shows itself in his critics as well. Although he had previously supported innovation, he lauded the old literature afterwards. As he continued novelty with the themes in his works, Ziya Paşa can be said to have been new with his mind while having been a supporter of the old literature with his emotions. This situation reflects itself on his critics, too. The above-mentioned first generation of Tanzimat did their criticism based on social utilitarianism. Nevertheless, those critics involve a structure with mostly subjective opinions. The second generation of the Tanzimat literature after 1876 criticised the old ones just as the first generation did. However, they tackled the issues in a different way and became more objective. Among them, Recaizade Mahmut Ekrem had a significant place as he approached to the problem in a scientifical way with Western criteria. Recaizade became a veritable architect of the new literature with his “Takdir-i Elhân” and “Talim-i Edebiyat” and presented a scientific and objective aspect for critics. Beşir Fuat was another figure who approached to literature in an unbiased and thorough way as Recaizade Mahmut Ekrem did. His realism made him so but sometimes he overdid this. The first critical biography in our literature titled “Victor Hugo” belongs to him. Ahmed Midhat recommended moderation and presence of mind here as he did for everything. Like the first generation of Tanzimat, he defended utilitarianism and wished simplification of language as well. Muallim Naci put forth a brand new type of criticism, that’s lexical criticism. He discussed with Recaizade on this issue and, with this polemicist attitude, he was not able to go beyond practical criticism. As for theoretical criticism, he hinged on presence of mind and recommended moderation in language and literary understanding. Mizancı Murat was a figure who appreciated criticism seriously in the second period of Tanzimat literature. Mizancı Murat, who showed up with realist views, complained of the lack of criticism and propounded remarkable opinions. Sami Paşazade Sezai defended the impersonality of literature with realist views again. As a consequence, Tanzimat literature can be said to have become a literature of criticism in its own right. It emerged as a reaction to the old period. The common point of the Tanzimat criticism was the fact that it paved the way for the new by rejecting the old.