Examining Turkish pre-service science teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) based on demographic variables
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Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) can be viewed as a new concept for the educational technology world. However, there are many studies related to TPACK and TPACK cannot be considered out of context. Instead, researchers should have a deep understanding about how the results of a TPACK study may change due to its context. This study demonstrates the importance of context. The Survey of TPACK was utilized to identify 591 pre-service science teachers' (PSTs) TPACK levels and examine the validity and reliability of data obtained from 591 PSTs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for validity. After factor analyses a TPACK model with four factors (technological knowledge, content knowledge, knowledge of pedagogy, knowledge of teaching with technology) were obtained. There were, however, seven factors in the original form of the survey. This change was interpreted as the effect of the context, because the participants in the original survey and in this survey were different in terms of their teacher preparation programs and the opportunities that the teacher preparation programs provided for them. In addition, pre-service science teachers' TPACK levels were investigated on the basis of demographic variables (gender, owning computer, computer usage level and grade level). An important result obtained from the demographic variables is that pre-service science teachers' TPACK levels develop in direct proportion to their grade level. This finding supports the idea that experiences with technology and in teaching have a positive impact on TPACK.