The effects of chronic exposure to ethanol and cigarette smoke on the formation of peroxynitrite, level of nitric oxide, xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase activities in rat kidney
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic ethanol intake and cigarette smoke exposure on rat kidney. The animals were divided into four experimental groups: (1) the control group (C), (2) the ethanol group (E), (3) the cigarette smoke group (CS), and (4) the cigarette smoke plus ethanol group (CS+E). Rats in E, CS and CS+E groups were treated with ethanol and/or cigarette smoke for 6 months. The animals were killed and the kidneys were removed to determine the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the levels of nitric oxide (NO). Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in kidney tissues. The activity of XO/g protein were 2.8 +/- 0.3, 5.2 +/- 0.3, 3.2 +/- 0.1, and 7.4 +/- 0.7 U for C, E, CS and CS+E groups, respectively. In groups E, and CS+E, the XO values were significantly higher than in group C (P < 0.05). The increase in XO activity of CS was not significantly different from group C (P > 0.05). There was a significant increase in XO activity of group CS+E as compared to CS and E groups (P < 0.05), and also a significant difference in XO activity between E and CS was observed (P < 0.05). The activity of MPO/g protein were 13.5 +/- 0.6, 16.2 +/- 1.1, 14.7 +/- 1.1, 23.8 +/- 0.9 U for C, E, CS, and CS+E groups, respectively. While MPO activity of kidneys from group CS+E were significantly higher as compared to C, CS, and E groups (P < 0.05), there was no significant difference among the groups of C, CS, E (P > 0.05). The levels of NO/g wet tissue were 347.7 +/- 8.5, 261.1 +/- 4.8, 329.8 +/- 5.6, and 254.2 +/- 3.8 nmol for C, E, CS, and CS+E groups, respectively. In groups of E and CS+E, the NO values were significantly lower than that of group C animals (P < 0.05). Although we detected lower NO levels in the E and CS+E groups than in CS group (P < 0.05), a significant difference in NO levels between CS+E and E groups was not observed. In the histopathological analysis of the kidney slices, severe degenerations in kidney tissues of group CS, E, CS+E were observed. Generally, the histological changes in kidney of CS+E and E groups were more severe than those observed in CS alone. While we observed a strong immunoreactivity for anti-nitrotyrosine antibody in kidneys of group CS+E, examination of sections from rat kidneys in group E revealed moderate staining. On the other hand, group CS had very little immunostaining. There was no immunostaining in group C. We concluded that chronic ethanol administration and cigarette smoke exposure may cause oxidative and nitrosative stress which lead to rat kidney damage.