Karstic Landscapes and Landforms in Turkey
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Approximately, 40% of Turkey’s landmass consists of soluble rocks (limestone, dolomite, and gypsum) highly suitable for karstification. While presenting different lithological composition, lithostratigraphic and structural characteristics, these rocks reach in some places up to 4000 m in elevation. Tectonic movements since the middle Miocene have played, together with climate, a major role in the processes of karst development. Several factors intervene in the formation processes and history of the karstic landscapes of Turkey: structural dynamics (mainly extensional tectonics and block faulting) and its spatial distribution, relief rejuvenation responding to the combination of uplift intensity and sea-level changes and the stratigraphic/lithologic context. Resulting from the various combinations possible, there are large-scale differences in the evolution of the karstic landscape within short distances. Consequently, six karstic regions and eleven distinct sub-karstic areas can be identified on the basis of their different morphogenetic and morphometric characteristics. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.