Dependence of film thickness on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films
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ZnO thin films are prepared on glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (PFCVAD) at room temperature. Optical parameters such as optical transmittance, reflectance, band tail, dielectric coefficient, refractive index, energy band gap have been studied, discussed and correlated to the changes with film thickness. Kramers-Kronig and dispersion relations were employed to determine the complex refractive index and dielectric constants using reflection data in the ultraviolet-visible near infrared regions. Films with optical transmittance above 90% in the visible range were prepared at pressure of 6.5 x 10(4) Torr. XRD analysis revealed that all films had a strong ZnO (0 0 2) peak, indicating c-axis orientation. The crystal grain size increased from 14.97 nm to 22.53 nm as the film thickness increased from 139 nm to 427 nm, however no significant change was observed in interplanar distance and crystal lattice constant. Optical energy gap decreased from 3.21 eV to 3.19 eV with increasing the thickness. The transmission in UV region decreased with the increase of film thickness. The refractive index, Urbach tail and real part of complex dielectric constant decreased as the film thickness increased. Oscillator energy of as-deposited films increased from 3.49 eV to 4.78 eV as the thickness increased. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.