Investigation of heavy metal concentrations in some Turkish wines
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Research studies analysing heavy metal or trace elements in Turkish wines is scarce. This study was designed to fill this gap, analysing 43 wines produced in 4 different regions in Turkey. A total of 37 red and 6 white wines produced from various grapes from 2006 to 2008 in Marmara, Aegean, Central Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia regions were studied. Wines were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb using atomic absorption spectrometer equipped (AAS) with electrothermal atomization unit (ET). Average results for red and white wines, respectively, were: Cr, 38.6 and 29.4 mu g/L; Mn, 697 and 101 mu g/ L; Fe, 1.7 and 0.7 mg/L; Co, 63 and 0.5 mu g/L; Ni, 134 and 573 mu g/L; Cu, 131 and 158 mu g/L; Zn, 389 and 2099 mu g/L; Cd, 2.8 (red wine; white wine results were under limit of detection); Pb, 6.3 (red wine; white wine results were under limit of detection). These results were interpreted for grape types and regions. Accuracy was tested with standard addition method. Recoveries ranged from 96% to 107% after standard addition. Cr, Fe and Mn in red wines were higher in comparison to white wines, whereas white wines were higher in Ni and Zn. Non-essential Cd and Pb concentrations were very low in both red and white wines. Comparison with literature shows all heavy metal concentrations in the analyzed Turkish wines to be below the limits designated by World Health Organization. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.