The origin and branching of medial calcaneal nerve in newborn foetuses
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Introduction: Entrapment of the medial heel region nerves is often mentioned as a possible cause of heel pain. Some authors have suggested that the medial calcaneal nerve (MCN) may be involved in such heel pain. The aim of the present study is to describe the variations of the origin of the medial calcaneal nerve and its branching patterns in the medial aspect of the calcaneus which establishes an anatomical guide for diagnosis and therapy of some tarsal region diseases. Material and methods: The formation and course of the MCN were traced to its branches in the distal ankle with the use of 4.8 X stereomicroscope (Carl-Zeis) or 28 X loop magnification for dissections of 36 newborn feet of formalin fixed cadavers. Results: The MCN originated from the tibial nerve (TN) in 61.1% and from the lateral plantar nerve (LPN) 16.7%, bilaterally. It branches from the TN on the right side and from the LPN on the left side in 11.1%, from the LPN on the right side and from the TN on the left side in 11.1%.The MCN consisted of 1 terminal branch in 3 out of 36 feet, 2 terminal branches in 28 out of 36, and 3 terminal branches in 5 out of 36. Discussion: The course and the origin of MCN on the medial aspect of the heel and its terminal branches were quite different. These variabilities will enable the surgeon to find and preserve the MCN and its terminal branches. Copyright (C) 2014, Anatomical Society of India. Published by Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved.