Identification and characterization of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthanium (Sacc. & Magnus) Lambs. Scrib.) isolates from Turkey using differential set cultivars
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Determining pathogen variability by identification of the virulent races of Collethotrichum lindemuthanium isolates collected from various regions of Turkey for the first time with a wide scope formed the purpose of the study. Hundred samples of infected plant material (bean) were collected from Samsun, Ordu, Konya, Karaman, Kahramanmaras, Nigde and Erzincan provinces during 2011-2012. Sixty-one isolates were obtained from the infected bean pod samples. Cultures from 51 out of 61 isolates were successfuly established and each of the 12 cultivars of the internationally recognised differential set were innoculated with the 51 isolates. Binary numbers were assigned to the races determined after inoculation identifying the first virulence races of Turkey. Distribution of isolates collected from various regions were analysed by cluster analysis. Thirty-five anthracnose races were obtained from 51 isolates. Twenty-eight races (1, 2, 6, 8, 17, 32, 47, 54, 55, 64, 96, 102, 130, 141, 515, 520, 585, 641, 833, 1032, 1153, 1165, 1344, 1472, 1601, 1929, 1993 and 2047) showed conformity for established anthracnose races throughout the world. However, 7 races (231, 233, 2560, 2690, 2816, 3195 and 3632) showed no conformity with established races of C. lindemuthianum. No differentiable properties were observed in the races associated regionally with the virulence clustering. Isolated races obtained from 7 different regions formed a dispersed model in cluster analysis. This study enabled us to understand the types of anthracnose races negatively impacting the bean production in Turkey by determining the pathotypes of the fungus. Selection of bean varieties resistant to these specific races will aid us in resistance breeding programs in bean.