Effects of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts on Meloidogyne javanica Infesting Eggplant and Pepper under Greenhouse Condition
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Among the major pests of vegetables are Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) (RKNs), which cause loss of production due to galling and reduction in root development and shoot growth. Herein, the efficacy of plant extracts of Capsicum frutescens, Hyoscyamus niger, Melia azedarach, Xanthium strumarium and Achillea wilhelmsii were evaluated at 3 concentrations (3, 6, and 12%) against Meloidogyne javanica on pepper and eggplant. Experiments were carried in pots under greenhouse condition, using pepper cv. Charleston and eggplant cv. Kemer as assay plants that are commonly cultivated in Turkey. Approximately 3,000 eggs of M. javanica were used for hatching test and 1,000 J2 of M. javanica were used for mortality test. Approximately, 5 mL of plant extracts were added by a syringe into the soil. Each experiment was arranged in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 5 replications. The control (+) pots received water containing M javanica and the control (-) pots received only water. At the end of the experiment, plants heights and weights were measured. According to the results, all plant extracts showed a different level of nematicidal activity at 3, 6, and 12% concentrations. The plant extracts of H. niger, and X strumarium at 12% concentration were found more efficient than M. azedarach, C. frutescens and A. wilhelmsii extract on egg hatching, on both pepper and eggplant plants. J2s mortality experiments showed that 12% concentration of H. niger, M azedarach and X strumarium were more effective against M javanica than the other treatments, on both pepper and eggplant plants. In general, there was no significant difference was found among nematode mortality and growth parameters (such as plant height, the fresh and dry weights of the above-ground parts of the plants, fresh and dry weights of roots of both pepper and eggplant plants). Accordingly, using H. niger and X strumarium plant extracts can provide effective methods of M. javanica control.