The effect of macromolecule and growth factor combinations on in vitro development of bovine embryos
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This study was conducted to determine the effects of different macromolecule sources added to synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) culture medium supplemented with growth factors on the development of bovine embryos and blastocyst morphology. Zygotes were distributed into 5 treatment groups. Cleavage, morula, and blastocyst rates were evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cells were determined by differential staining method. It was found that bovine serum albumin (BSA), either alone or in combination with growth factors, as compared to the control or polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) resulted in higher embryo yield and faster development during early bovine embryo culture. The quality of bovine embryos, based on the number of blastocyst cells and the ratio of ICM to total blastomeres, was affected by the sources of macromolecules and their combinations with growth factors. Growth factors supplemented to SOFaa media with BSA and PVA significantly increased the number of ICM cells and the ratio of ICM cells to total number of cells. In conclusion, replacing BSA with PVA depressed the blastocyst rate and cell numbers, and the number of blastomeres and ICM and TE cell numbers were affected by both the type of macromolecule and the growth factor supplements.