ÖĞRETMEN ADAYLARININ TÜRK MİLİ EĞİTİM SİSTEMİ ÜZERİNE ALGILADIKLARI SORUNLAR
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Cumhuriyet dönemi Türk Milli Eğitim Sistemi özellikle son yıllarda hem okul sistemleri hem de programlar olarak önemli bir yapılanma içerisindedir. Bu yapılanma ve değişim sürecinde sistemin bütün paydaşları önemli sorunlar yaşamakta, sorunlar çözümlenirken yeni sorunlar ortaya çıkmakta, eğitim sistemi adeta bir sorunlar manzumesi olarak sürekli şikayet edilen ve tartışılan bir fenomen olarak ülke gündemini oluşturmaktadır. Bu araştırmada öğretmen adaylarının TME Sisteminin mevcut yapısı içerisinde algıladıkları sorunların neler olduğu ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu araştırma betimsel bir araştırma olup nitel veri toplama tekniklerinin kullanıldığı bir durum çalışmasıdır. Araştırmada nitel veriler görüşme tekniği ile elde edilmiştir. Çalışma grubu amaçsal örnekleme yöntemlerinden benzeşik örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenmiştir. Çalışma grubu 25'i erkek, 44'ü kız toplam 69 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen nitel veriler içerik analizi yöntemlerinden frekans analizi yoluyla analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmada katılımcılar TME sistemine ilişkin 25 farklı boyutta 207 sorun ifade etmişlerdir. Bunlardan 124'ü kızlar, 83'ü ise erkekler tarafında belirtilmiştir. Öğrencilerce ifade edilen görüşler toplam olarak belirtilme sıklıkları göre sıralı olarak şöyledir: Sistemin sürekli değişmesi, öğretmenlerin niteliksizliği, programların yapısı, ezbere dayalı eğitim, bölgeler arası eğitim eşitsizliği, tek tip insan yetiştirme, sınav odaklı eğitim, okulların cazip olmaması, verilen eğitimin yetersizliği, öğretmenöğrenci ilişkilerindeki bozulma, özel ve devlet okullarının farklı eğitim vermesi, kalitesiz eğitim, rehberlik hizmetlerinde yetersizlik, mesleki eğitime önem vermeme, okul aile ilişkisi, eğitimin yönetimi, karma eğitim, başarı değerlendirmesi, kitap kullanımı, spor ve engellilere önem vermeme, zorunlu din eğitimi, burs desteği, okul güvenliği, yabancı dil öğretimi, okul kontenjanları. Araştırmada cinsiyetlere göre belirtilen görüşler arası pozitif yönlü yüksek ilişki bulunmuşturIntroduction Turkish Education System and education management field are in the process of reconstruct in recent years. The problems of Turkish Education System increase day by day and become more complicated as a result of discipliner paradigmatic changes. In this study, it is studied to find out what problems are that preservice teachers perceive in the existing structure of TNE System. When analyzed the research that is made about the TNE System, it can be said that the most emphasized problems are teacher education system, not acquiring as a profession of school management, centralist structure of system, vocational and technical education and problems of higher education system. Problems in the field of education continue seriously in Turkey. Although the problems in TNE System are known and expressed, number of studies that explore preservice teachers’ opinions about this subject is less. As a near future pragmatist, young preservice teachers’ findings and opinions about education system that can come out according to research outcomes will give feedback to develop the system. Preservice teachers views about system are similar to situation identified in the studies which are carried out by different sharers. In this study, it is aimed to determine pedagog preservice teachers views about the problems of TNE System. The result of this study can also provide feedback to the system of other research results made on TNE System. It is also important in terms of being a sample to studies which will be carried out with different methods in the future. In the study, it is studied to find out what problems are in current structure of TNE System that preservice teachers perceive. Method It is a descriptive research and a case study in which methods of qualitative data collection are used. In this research, qualitative datas are collected with interview method. Study group is determined by Homogeneus sampling which is one of the Purposeful sampling methods. Study group of research is composed of 2014–2015 academic year, fall semester, Education Faculty Psychological Counselling and Guidance first semester students, 25 (36%) of students are girls, 44 (64%) of then are boys and totaly 69 students are interviewed. Semistructured interview form is used as a data collection tool in the research. In checking validity and reliability; firstly in the process of data collection, interview form based on expert appraisals is developed and the substances which are achieved over 70% are determined by calculating percentage of compliance that is proposed by Miles & Hubermas(1994) and participants’ willigness is provided to the interview. In the research, opinions which are acquired in written are analyzed one by one. The opinions that participants Express according to semi-structured and open-ended substances are analyzed with descriptive analyze method, each opinion is taken out inventory by forming necessary themes according to substances. Qualitative datas Öğretmen Adaylarının Türk Mili Eğitim Sistemi Üzerine Algıladıkları Sorunlar 883 Turkish Studies International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic Volume 10/7 Spring 2015 which are acquired are reviewed via frequency analysis which is one of content analysis methods. After participants views are classified according to each scale substance in terms of meaning, the views that have same meaning are gathered under a group and findings are interpreted by digitizing. In this search, data analysis process is explained in detail and acquired opinions are included in findings section. In this process, readers are left making interpretation from original opinions of participants. Findings Participants express 207 problems in 25 different aspects related TNE System. 124 of these problems are stated by girls and 83 of these problems are stated by boys. Views of students are sequentially stated according to frequency of indicating and order of importance like below: unsettled of system, propertylessness of teachers, structure of schedules, rote- learning based education system, inequality of education among regions, training monotype people, exam-centered education, nondesirable schools, inadequacy of education, distortion in teacher-student relationship, different education in public and private schools, poor quality education, inadequacy of counselling service, not giving importance to vocational training, parent-teacher relation, management of education, coeducation, success evaluation, usage of book, not caring handicapped students and sport, compulsory religion lesson, scholarship, school security, foreign language teaching, school contingent. In the study, there is positive high correlation among views according to gender. Conclusion and Discussion It is seen that there are lots of researches and comments on TNE System in the literature. Findings are presented below in the context of system evaluation and discussing with research findings because this study’s borders are to define the situation from the views of preservice teachers. A considerable amount of poor quality finding is reached in education in this study. In the study, the most indicated problems are unsettled and continually changing of system, inadequacy of education, propertylessness of teachers, exam-centered education and rote-based education. In the research, students express 207 problems in 25 different aspects related TNE System. The most frequently stated 9 problems are like these: unsettled of education, propertylessness of teachers, rote-based education, schedules, inequality of education among regions, nondesirable schools, training monotype people, examcentered education, indequacy of education.