ÖĞRETMENLERİN ÇOCUK VE GENÇLİK EDEBİYATI ALGILARI ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME
MetadataShow full item record
Günümüz öğretmeni, her şeyi bilen olmaktan ziyade bilgiye nasıl ulaşılacağını bilen, alanında uzman, öğrenciyi teşvik eden ve öğrenmeyi öğreten özellikleri ile öne çıkmaktadır. Bununla birlikte iyi bir okur olan öğretmenin öğrencileri de iyi birer okur olacaktır. Özellikle okuma kültürü zayıf olan toplumlarda çocuk ve gençlere okuma kültürü kazandırma görevi genelde öğretmene yüklenmektedir. Buna koşut olarak pek çok araştırmada öğretmenlerin hem rol model olmak suretiyle hem de okuma materyali önerileriyle öğrencilerin okuma alışkanlığı ediminde, okuma becerilerinin gelişiminde etkili oldukları ortaya konmuştur. Bu bulgulardan hareketle öğretmenlerin çocuk ve gençlik edebiyatı algılarının belirlenmesi gerekmektedir. Böylelikle sahip olduğumuz öğretmen grubunun okuma kültürü edindirmede öğrencilere nasıl katkı sağlayabileceğini veya sağlayamayacağını kestirebiliriz. Bu bağlamda öğrencilerin okuma ediminde etkisi daha fazla olduğu düşünülen Türkçe, edebiyat, okul öncesi ve sınıf öğretmenlerine altı açık uçlu sorudan oluşan yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formları uygulanmıştır. Bu formlar ile elde edilen verilerin analizinde, veri analizi tekniklerinden "betimsel analiz" kullanılmıştır. Çalışma, 2014-2015 güz yarıyılında Kırşehir il merkezinde görev yapmakta olan 60 öğretmen üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Katılımcıların 27'si erkek, 33'ü kadındır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre öğretmenlerin çocuk ve gençlik edebiyatını öğretici - eğitici yanı ağır basan edebî eserler olarak algıladıkları; bu edebiyat kapsamında Ömer Seyfettin, Gülten Dayıoğlu, Muzaffer İzgü, Kemalettin Tuğcu yanında İpek Ongun gibi yazarların isimlerini önceledikleri; büyük oranda çocuk ya da gençlik edebiyatı adı altında ders almadıkları; 100 Temel Eser'i çocuklara ve gençlere uygun eserler olarak değerlendirdikleri belirlenmiştirIntroduction: In 20th century, teacher is the one knowing how to get the information rather than knowing everything, being expert in his branch, encouraging students and teaching how to learn. In addition, students of a teacher being a good reader would be a good reader, as well. Moreover, teacher has a great role on making someone get reading habit in societies having low family conscience and sensitivity (Yılmaz, 2009: 138). Students are readers as well as their teachers (Hill ve Beers, 1993: 1). Benevides (2006) questions how a teacher not having a reading habit and skill can make students acquire a lifelong learning habit. Although teachers’ roles have changed from past to present, it is seen in the carried studies that teachers have a great effect on students’ reading states. It is not an easy process to make students acquire reading habit for both families and the teachers because there are many factors affecting reading skill and habit along with family and teacher such as social circle, library, school, mass media(Özbay, 2009; Türkyılmaz, 2012; Balcı, Uyar and Büyükikiz, 2012). In this case, which path should be followed, which reading materials should be utilized in order to make children and young adults acquire reading habit and reading culture? Works of children and young adult literature are seen as an outstanding option in making children and young adults acquire reading habits. In many local and foreign studies such as Türkyılmaz (2012), Karakuş (2006), Aslan (2006), Aytaş (2003), Hunt (2001), Tomlinson and Brown (2007), Lukens and Cline (1995), Dilidüzgün (2007), Sever (2008), Sever (2013), Şirin (2007), it is emphasized and detected that children and young adults’ reading habits and attitudes towards reading have improved positively in the case of making them read works of children and young adult literature. The aim of the current study is to reveal perceptions and ideas of teachers towards children and young adult literature by considering studies in literature thereby it would be possible to have an idea about teachers having significant effect on making students acquire reading act. Method: In many studies, it is found out that teachers have significant effect on making students acquire reading habit and developing students’ reading skills as role models and with their suggestions on reading materials. In reference to those findings, it is necessary to define teachers’ perceptions on children and juvenile literature. A semi structured interview forms having six open ended questions are administered to teachers of Turkish, literature, preschool and classroom departments. These branches are taken into consideration because it is thought that they are the courses having great effect on making students acquire reading habit. Among data analysis methods, “descriptive analysis” is used in the analysis of the data (Yıldırım ve Şimşek, 2008: 79). In descriptive analysis, “data are summarized and interpreted considering previously defined themes”. Direct citations are Öğretmenlerin Çocuk ve Gençlik Edebiyatı Algıları Üzerine Bir İnceleme 919 Turkish Studies International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic Volume 10/7 Spring 2015 practiced frequently, too (Yıldırım ve Şimşek, 2008: 224) and thereby sample would be defined in detail (Bloor ve Wood, 2006). Participants: There are 60 teachers in the study. They are randomly assigned and there are 15 teachers each of Turkish, literature, preschool and classroom departments. The interviews are practiced one to one. Answers given to the questions are categorized considering statements and statements are defined as units. For instance, for the question Which features should children and young adult literate works have?, E14( Literature teacher number 14) answered “it should enable to improve one’s imagination and have enjoyable theme”. The given answer is separated into two as “it should enable to improve one’s imagination” and “it should have an enjoyable theme”. While performing that, both statements and semantic features are taken into consideration and then categorized. In addition, sentences having same or similar semantic features put together and they are given frequency. Statements uttered by participants are presented in inverted commas and italic form by informing number of the participant. For example; what children and young adult literature concepts mean is asked but O8(Preschool teacher number 8) answered as “child is an organism in need of affection and others’ help to provide himself. As for adolescent, they are individuals among ages 11- 18.” The answer shows that question is not comprehended by the participant. The current study is carried out in fall term of 2014- 2015 academic year in Kırşehir province center. While 27 of participants are male, 33 of participants are female. Teachers in the group have experience changing from 2 years to 44 years. While preschool teachers are the youngest teacher group, classroom teachers are the ones being older. Conclusion: In this study aiming to determine perceptions of teachers on children and young adult literature, it is possible to state following results: It is understood that most of the preschool, literature and Turkish teachers think children and young adult literature is “works suitable for children and juvenile; and given students by considering their ages”. On the other hand, for classroom teachers, children and young adult literature is works having educational function and they should be used in passing down national and moral values. Maltepe (2009) has also found out in the study that prospective teachers emphasize especially concepts of “realism”, “our own culture”, “instructiveness” in both choice of themes and characters related to content and educational features of qualified children books. It is also stated that “children books are not adequate enough to make students get reading culture, broadening their emotional horizon, providing mother tongue consciousness and sensitiveness and contributing to aesthetic development etc...” It is seen that when children and young adult literature is discussed, classroom teachers state Ömer Seyfettin, Gülten Dayıoğlu, Muzaffer İzgü, Kemalettin Tuğcu, Samed Behrengi, Aziz Nesin with regard to precedence; there are also Reşat Nuri Güntekin and Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu. As for preschool teachers, it is seen that they write the following names Ömer Seyfettin, Gülten Dayıoğlu, Kemalettin Tuğcu along with Tarık Buğra and Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu. Literature 920 Mustafa TÜRKYILMAZ Turkish Studies International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic Volume 10/7 Spring 2015 teachers state Ömer Seyfettin, İpek Ongun, Gülten Dayıoğlu, Kemalettin Tuğcu, Muzaffer İzgü and Aziz Nesin by considering precedence. The following names Ömer Seyfettin, Gülten Dayıoğlu, Kemalettin Tuğcu, Muzaffer İzgü, İpek Ongun, La Fontaine, Cahit Zarifoğlu, Rıfat Ilgaz, Eflatun Cem Güney and Mark Twain are emphasized by Turkish teachers. It is noticed that teachers have stated similar writers in general; Turkish and literature teachers have also included İpek Ongun to their list. Similar result is detected by Kan (2011) and Türkyılmaz (2011). When examined in general, it is determined 39 of teachers did not attend a children or young adult literature course and 7 of the participants think that course they attended is not functional. It can be said that only 14 of the participants think the course they attended before is functional. Maltepe (2009) defined that half of prospective teachers do not consider themselves proficient enough to select qualified book and other half cannot utilize knowledge they had in book selection process. It is found out that teachers think 100 Basic Literature Works is suitable for children or juvenile; however, there are also many negative criticism on those works. For example, it is stated that those works do not make children or juvenile eager to read as they are not contemporary for them; works of contemporary writers are not included in those lists; translations of the works are performed inconsistently; sexuality appears so frequently that it violates “appropriateness to children” principle (Neydim, 2006; Cengiz, 2006; Dilidüzgün, 2006; Sever, 2006; Gültekin, 2009; Arıcan ve Yılmaz, 2010). In addition, Türkyılmaz and Kuş (2014) analysed 10 works, which are commonly read among 100 Temel Eser, in terms of human rights and they detected that there are many negative statements about right to life and protection which are the most fundamental right of children; moreover, children’s right to participate is not mentioned. Almost all of the teachers expressed that works of children and young adult literature should be used in courses because teachers think that those works may make lessons more enjoyable and make children and juvenile like reading. In Kan (2011)’s study, all of the teachers stated that works of children literature should be also used in other courses along with Turkish. Similarly, classroom teachers participated Büyükkavas Kuran and Ersözlü (2009)’s study stated that children literature provides many opportunities for teachers to prepare an activity for the courses out of Turkish. It can be suggested to use qualified children and young adult literature works in Turkish and literature course books. On the other hand, Dilidüzgün (2004) has detected that texts in Turkish course books have many qualitative problems within the children literature. According to acquired data, it can be said that teachers having a great effect on making someone get reading culture are not qualified enough about the issue. Works having just educational function and teaching oriented will not satisfy expectations. They will not help students be a universal reader reading for pleasure. Within this context, it can be thought that teachers attended the courses of instructors who studied on children and young adult literature will be more effective in making students acquire reading culture. In addition, teacher should be Öğretmenlerin Çocuk ve Gençlik Edebiyatı Algıları Üzerine Bir İnceleme 921 Turkish Studies International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic Volume 10/7 Spring 2015 informed about contemporary and qualified works of children and young adult literature along with frequently mentioned Turkish and world literature works. Works of children and young adult literature should be used as a means to acquire reading culture and to be familiar with classical works. Journal supplements, reading catalogue and lists published by non- governmental organizations can be utilized by teachers to be informed about current and qualified works. Moreover, scientists should also go on providing an insight to children and young adult literature with their articles and researches. They should also make society informed about the issue. It is seen that there are many things that Council of Higher Education and Ministry of National Education should do about this subject.